Ramboll Liveable Survey in Denmark was carried out in two phases.
In the first phase we conducted a national survey where we asked Danes what makes a city an attractive place to live.
The second phase was a city-specific survey where we asked residents of seven Danish cities, what makes a city attractive based on 31 factors.
The survey was carried out by the Market Research Institute, YouGov, on Ramboll’s behalf. Both surveys were representative for their target groups.
Phase 1: The national survey
The objective of the national survey was to discover what makes cities attractive, and what determines whether inhabitants are satisfied with municipal efforts on a national level.
The survey was carried out by the research institute, YouGov. A total of 1008 CAWI interviews (an internet- based panel survey) with Danes aged 18+, from 26-28 June 2017. The respondents were evenly divided, geographically as well as socio- economically in Denmark.
Phase 1 contained three questions:
Question 1: How satisfied or dissatisfied are you in general about living in your municipality?
Question 2: How important are the following issues for you, seen in relation to the municipality where you live?
Question 3: How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements, seen in relation to the municipality where you live?
The results based on the three questions were analysed according to four background variables: the size of the municipality, the region, the respondent’s age and their family situation.
Phase 2: The city-specific survey
The objective of the city-specific survey was to discover whether there were differences between the views of citizens in seven selected cities, as well as obtain more detailed insight into what makes a city an attractive place to live, and ensure the greatest possible methodological precision in the study.
Based on the national survey results, Ramboll developed a conceptual framework for ’liveability’ in Danish cities. This consists of 31 factors that are immediately familiar to all citizens. Using these factors, we studied the results to find out whether there were differences in the view of residents of the capital city, other major cities and the larger municipal regions.
The survey was carried out by the analysis institute, YouGov. A total of 3,223 CAWI interviews (an internet panel-survey) were conducted during the period 22 September – 2 October 2017, with Danes over the age of 18, living in the following cities: Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense, Aalborg, Esbjerg, Vejle and Køge.
The interviews were conducted as panel-surveys and were measured according to the background variables of age, gender, and geography (city), based on a standard ideal from Statistics Denmark.
The results were thus representative of the population in relation to the target group.
Phase 2 contained fire questions:
Question 1: To what extent are the following factors important for whether your city is an attractive place for you to live?
Question 2: Which of the following factors are most important for whether your city is attractive to you as a place to live?
Question 3: To what extent do you think the following factors apply to the city where you live?
Question 4: Which of the following factors should your city/municipality prioritise most, to make the city even more attractive for you to (continue to) live there?
The results from the four questions were analysed according to six background variables: gender, age, family situation, household income level, education and main employment.
We conducted a gap analysis based on a comparison of citizen replies about the factors that have the greatest importance for their city’s attractiveness (question 1) and to what degree these factors apply to their own city (question 3). The gap is the difference between the two questions. In other words, to what degree do people feel that further efforts are lacking.
For both questions (1 and 3), it was possible to answer in five categories. Only the two categories which expressed the greatest significance were used in the gap analysis. For the question, “to what extent do you think that the following factors apply to the city where you live?”, then these two categories were included: ‘To a great extent’ and ‘To a very great extent’, while these three were not included: ‘Not at all’, ‘To a lesser extent’ and ‘To some extent’.
GAP ANALYSIS ACROSS CITIES
The survey asked people living in seven cities in Denmark about 31 chosen factors that have the greatest importance for their city’s attractiveness and to what degree these factors apply to their own city. The results below were analysed based on a comparison of these two questions.
Comparison with similar studies
Since the study is based on a conceptual framework about what makes a city attractive, the study’s results are not directly comparable with other studies, such as analyses of a population’s attitudes towards municipal welfare efforts.